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碧滟楼及周田村 圍屋

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发表于 2004-5-19 13:07:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
客家屋居 (1)

       自改革开放后,随着农村经济的好转,各地农村大量建新房,很多有代表性的古建筑也被破坏了。因为周田村的偏僻,这里的却留下了不少客家人的古建筑,为我们了解客家人过去的风俗习惯留下了依据。
    Since the reformation of the economical system of China, the country economy of China developed quickly. The peasants build new house everywhere thus destroyed many valuable archaic buildings, but many remained in Zhoutian just because of its obscurity, which help us to learn the Hakka custom.
    据统计,目前秋长镇保留下来的清代以前建成的客家古民居有近百处。其中多处是明代甚至南宋年间建成的,最早的建筑年近千岁。象高岭村的蒋田南阳世居和高布老围屋,初步考证是福建迁徙到秋长的叶姓祖先于南宋末年建成,是惠阳目前发现的最古老的围屋。但由于年代久远,该建筑的大半部分已损毁,只有土墙垣保留着。但在周田村,很多古建筑几乎完好的保存着。虽然年代没有那么久远,但客家围屋的特点仍清晰可见。
    Tt’s estimated that about 100 Hakka ancient buildings that can be traced to Qing Dynasty or even Song Dynasty more than one thousand years ago remain in Qiuchang, but a majority of them are debris now. What we can see is only the broken earth wall. In Zhoutian we can see many nearly perfectly remain though they are not so old, but the characteristic of Hakka building style is obvious.
   一种著名的客家围屋是闽西的圆型土楼。这是一种以防护为主要功能的屋居。土墙厚达一米厚。整个宗族住在一个大杂院。只有一个出入口。因为在那时候,分散居住是很危险的。当客家人有能力制作泥砖时,这种围屋变成了四角型。但防卫仍是主要目的。几代人还是要集中在一起,因此这种围屋通常是很大的。
    There are many different types of Earth Buildings in Hakka area. The famous types are the Round in West Fujian, The round houses were built as a very defensive structure to fend off the locals with its wall is usually around 1 meter thick.
It is a "group-oriented" residence, usually with one main entrance, Several generations of a family inhabit each compound. It is dangerous to live dispersedly at that time for the new settlers because of the frequent attack by the locals.
    When the Hakka can afford to make bricks, they began to build square complex. But the safeguard was still the first consideration. The whole clan had to live within a compound, so the building should be a very large complex.

                         原国民党将领 - 叶光 在周田村的围屋 虽已无人居住但外表仍然风光

      围屋通常为瓦房,墙壁为白色。前面通常都有一个半圆型的池塘。池塘的直径切线与围屋的大门平行。很多人以为这池塘是为了灌溉。其实这是一种风水学说。人们建房都要依山临水。
    The Building is usually built facing a semicircular pond. The diameter side of the pond is in parallel with the front building。 The roof is usually made of roof tiles, and the walls tends to be in white colors. Many believe that the front pond is used for washing, irrigating the garden, and for aqua- culture. In fact, the purpose is superstitious. It is believed that it is luck to build a house in front of water and with a mount at back.


Hakka House  客家屋居 (2)

     碧滟楼是清代著名华侨领袖“吉隆坡王”叶亚来的故居。叶亚来于咸丰4年(1854年)前往马来西亚谋生,而后因抗匪有功,被当地政府授予甲必丹行政长官,并成为吉隆坡王,是著名的华侨首领。后来,他因开发和建设吉隆坡成为富翁,捐巨款在家乡修建了挺秀书院,还于光绪15年(1889年)在周田村修建了碧滟楼。  
    Biyan Building is the former residence of Ye-Yalai, the famous oversea Chinese leader in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ye moved to Malaysia in 1854 to make a living. He was awarded to be a kotwal and became King of Kuala Lumpur. When he got rich, he built this complex in 1889 for his family and donate to build a school for his home village.

      碧滟楼按传统客家建筑工艺建成,平面呈长方形,长60多米,宽近37米,建筑面积近2000平方米。内部有形状各异的院落,结构布局得体实用,是一幢典型的客家传统围屋。  
    Biyan Building represents the Hokka architecture style. The whole complex is 60 meters long and 37 meters wide. It occupies 2000 square meters. With its rational and practical layout, Several different compounds constitute the whole.  

      历经一个多世纪,碧滟楼内部的装潢仍保留如初。与其他众多古民居相比,碧滟楼气势恢弘,屋顶层层叠叠,外檐装饰华丽,引梁、瓦唇、挡板都饰以精美的画雕,屋内的墙壁上都装饰有精美的壁画,体现着较高的建筑艺术水平。  
    The inner decoration of Biyan Building remains as it was one and a half centuries ago. The sculptural eaves, beautiful mural painting under the roof and the engraved girder and balk are surprising perfect.

Hakka House  客家屋居 (3)

      Entering the front door of a Hakka house, you are in the lower hall. The lower hall is of rectangular shape where the depth is much shorter than the width. It is the entrance of the whole complex. Inside the entrance is a large central courtyard. In the same central axis, there are several central halls which is about one step higher in level than each other. There is an open courtyard between each hall.  
  走进一个客家围屋,首先是下厅。下厅是一个浅窄的四方型空间,其实只是个入口处。走进里面是一个天井。大门直对的中心轴线是一连串的中厅。这些中厅每个都比前一个高一级,中间各有一个天井。

    On the left and right sides there are independent compounds for each families.  The door of each room open to the center. A typical room is about 10 square meters in size, the larger room is around 15 square meters.  
  中厅的两边是个个不同的院子,住着各个家庭分支。各个房间对着各自中心。一般房间有10平方米,较大的有15平方米。  

     The windows facing outside tends to be small, it is used as loophole or surveillance rather than lighting, and the window size at the inner wall is larger letting in day light. It is extremely hard for outsiders to come in through the windows.  
  外墙基本上没有窗口,很多很小的洞口是用作枪口或了望孔的。内墙的窗口才是用于采光的。  
The main entrance door is padded with iron sheet and is locked by several horizontal wood bars. The wooden bars retract into the walls. In the event the wood bars are sawed through, the locking mechanism is still intact.
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发表于 2004-5-19 23:04:51 | 显示全部楼层
那些壁画,据说是江苏来的。
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发表于 2004-5-27 21:59:14 | 显示全部楼层
碧滟楼有点古典主义的风格啊,哈哈
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发表于 2012-2-28 23:47:07 | 显示全部楼层
我的祖家就在碧艳楼隔壁。

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有几何转来看下?  发表于 2012-2-29 08:21
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发表于 2012-2-29 08:56:57 | 显示全部楼层
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