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马来西亚的客家人160万[英文转贴]

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发表于 2002-9-3 19:52:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
网络来源:
http://www.asiawind.com/php3/php/forums/read.php?f=1&i=2055&t=2055
Author: CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (130.95.128.---)
Date:   09-02-02 09:59

The arrival of Hakka Chinese in Malaysia

我的少年郎﹐
離家去南洋。
我們兩離別﹐
頂多不過二春光。
望郎莫悲惶﹐
不必大心傷。
沿途多保重﹐
再會之期並不長久。

My dear young husband is leaving home for Nanyang (Malaya and Singapore)
Our separartion, the most, would be only two years.
I hope you do not worry and sad.
Take care of yourself during the journey,
We wll meet again soon.

A Chinese song

There were already Chinese living in the present day city of Malacca during the reign of Emperor Cheng Zu (成祖皇帝 1403AD to 1425AD).of the Ming Dynasty (11368AD to 1644AD).

In 1404AD Emperor Cheng Zu appointed Zheng He (鄭和), as an admiral.
In the sixth moon of 1405AD, Emperor Cheng Zu sent Zheng He to Nanyang
(南洋). A large fleet of sixty two large ships and more than one hundred medium-sized ones, altogether more than two hundred ships, with over twenty seven thousand sailors, navigators, and tradesmen, were under the command Zheng He. They sailed to Charapa (占城 present day Vietnam), Java (爪哇), Polembang (舊港), and Sumatra (present day Indonesia) and Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka).

Zheng He returned to Beijing in the ninth moon of 1407AD. He had a second trip in 1408AD, the third in 1412AD, the fourth in 1416AD, the fifth in 1421AD, the sixth in 1424AD and the seventh in 1430AD.

According to Ming Shi (明史) or the history of the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He
might have reached 35 countries during his trips.

On his second trip he stopped in Malacca which was then a Kingdom in the
Malay peninsular. He met the ruler of Malacca, Paramaswara who made an
agreement with Zheng He for the Kingdom of Malacca to become a protectorate
Kingdom of the Ming Dynasty. On his way home Zheng He took Paramaswara
with him and presented him to Emperor Cheng Zu who then married one of his
daughters to Paramaswara [I forgot the name of the princess]. Paramaswara returned to Malacca with the Chinese princess and her Chinese entourage of over two hundred. Paramaswara ceded to his Chinese guests a small hill not far from his palace. The locals named this hill Bukit China (唐人山 Chinese Hill).

These Chinese guests did not return to China but lived in Malacca permanently.
There could have been a few Hakkas among those Chinese. After their deaths
they were all buried in Bukit China which was later to become a Chinese cemetery. Today, this hill is still being used as a burial place by the local ethnic Chinese.

The first Hakka Association was established in Malacca in 1792AD. It was the Zeng Long Association of Malacca (馬六甲增龍會館)

During the reign of Emperor Qian Long (乾隆皇帝 1736AD to 1795AD), 謝高清
(Xie Gaoqing), a business man, wrote a book, called 海錄 Hai Lu. The book mentioned about a country by the name of Ji Lan Dan (吉蘭丹 present day Kelantan state in Malaysia) where there were many Hakka Chinese lived near the source of the Kelantan River. The main occupation of these Hakka Chinese was digging for gold in the region near the Kelantan River. Xie Gaoqing also mentioned about some Min (閩) Chinese living further down the Kelantan Rover where they grew peppercorns and owned grocery shops. The Hakkas lived up in the hill and later their settlement was named Pulai village (布賴村). The present day residents of Pulai are the fifth or sixth generation offspring of the pioneers. They are now rubber and oil palm plantations owners since gold had been depleted decades ago.

This is a repost of part of the article "The first Hakkas in Penang".
"In the 18th century, the island of Pinang was under the dominion of the Sultan of Kedah. The Malay called the island, Pulau Pinang (Pinang means betel-nut and Pulau means island, in full betel-nut island). It was called Betal-nut Island because there were a lot of betel-nut trees growing in the island. According
to the book "enang in the past" written by卜克望 (Brookman), there were only fifty eight Malay and Chinese fishermen living along the seacoast in the island.

In the earlier years of the reign of Qian Long Emperor (乾隆皇帝 who reigned from 1736AD to 1795AD) of the Qing Dynasty (1644AD to 1912AD), around the years from 1740AD to 1760AD, there were three Hakka Chinese, Zhang Li (張理), Qiu Zhao Jin (丘兆進) and Ma Fu Chun (馬福春). Zhang Li and Qiu Zhao Jin were from the county of Da Pu (大埔縣) in Guangdong province (廣東省) and Ma Fu Chun was from Yong Ding county (永定縣) in Fujian province (福建省). Among the three, Zhang Li was the eldest, Qiu Ma Chun was the second and Ma Fu Chun was the youngest. The three of them formed a britherhood and agreed to venture to Nanyang (南洋) or South Sea.

From Da Pu, the trio took a small boat and sailed along the river of Han Jiang
(韓江) to the town of Chao An (潮安). From Chao An they might have walked to the
harbour city of Shan Tou (汕頭). They stayed in Shan Tou for several days before they embarked on a junk for the Malay Peninsula. The junk sailed across the South China Sea and reached Pinang Island after several weeks at sea. The trio finally landed on the shores of the present day Tanjung Tokong in Penang Island.

The present day Penang Island was an island of tropical forest. The trio cleared the forest and established their own farms. They lived in different places near to each other. Although they did not live in the same place they agreed to meet regularly in a chosen place. When they met they discussed and planned how to cultivate their fields. They were like three brothers, looking after each other, as they were living
in a wild country. To them, as pioneers, life was hard and tough.

There was an occasion when Zhang Li did not turn up in the meeting place for sometime. Qiu Zhao Jin and Ma Fu Chun wondered what could have happened to him. They went to see Zhang Li and they could not find him in his hut. They searched the vicinity and they could not find him. Several days later, they eventually found him dead in a stone cave nearby. Qiu Zhao Jin and Ma Fu Chun buried Zhang Li near the cave where he died.

Several years later, in 1785AD, the Sultan of Kedah gave permission to the British East Indian Company to establish a settlement on the island of Pinang. The following year in July, Captain Francis Light landed on the island and hoisted the Union Jack on the sparesely populated, jungle smoothered island. Captain Francis Light signed a treaty with the Sultan of Kedah by paying the sultan $6,000 a year, while the Company was on the island. Thus Captain Francis Light officially took possession of Pinang Island on behalf of the British Government. The total population was about one thousand when Captain Francis Light landed on the island. The British named the island Prince of Wale Island (威爾斯太子島). However, the local population continued to call the island Pulau Pinang. Later the British renamed it "The Island of Penang".

In order to encourage trade and commerce, the British made Pinang Island a
free port which meant no taxees were levied on exports and imports. Trades from China, India, the Dutch East Indies came to trade in Pinang Island. Within eight years the population increased to about ten thousand and 7,858 of them were Chinese, according to the Braddell census report. The Chinese population was 8,963 in 1830; 15,457 in 1851; 28,000 in 1860.

Qiu Zhao Jin and Ma Fu Chun died of old age during the early of this period. They were buried in the Chinese cememtery. Later, the Hakka Chinese in Pinang Island reburied them next to Zhang Li. A little temple was erected in honour of them. It was called 大伯公 ( Toa Peh Gong in Hokkien) named after Zhang Li, since he was the eldest (大伯 or Da Bo). Gong (公)was the title given to honour the eldest.

Fifteen years after the landing of Captain Francis Light, that was 1801, a Jia Ying Assosication (嘉應會館) was established in Penang Island. Originally the association was called "仁和公司 (Ren He Kongsi)". Later it was renamed to "客公司 (Ke Kongsi)", "嘉應館 (Jia Ying Association)", "嘉應州公司 (Jia Ying Zhou Kongsi)" and finally settled with the name of Jia Ying Association. According to the title the site of the Jia Ying Association was at No.22 Toa Peh Kong Street (Jala Tanjung Tokong), in George Town" .

According to page 15 in the publication "Malaysia in History" Volume 18. No.2 December 1975, before 1830AD, there were already Hakka Chinese working in the tin mines in the present day city of 芙蓉 (Seremban) in Negri Sembilan State in Malaysia. In the early 19th century there were a few consecutive Hakka Chinese serving as Kapitan China in that state. They were Cheng Ming Li (盛明利),Ye Ya Shi (葉亞石), Ye Ya Lai (葉亞來), Li San (李三) and a few others.

Before 1870AD there were Hakka Chinese working in the tin mines in the present day city of Ipoh (see my post on Ipoh, somewhere in the Forum). There were many Hakka Chinese tin mine owners in Larut (Taiping 太平) in the of the 19th century (see my post on the War of Larut, somewhere in the Forum). For the arrival of Hakka Chinese in East Malaysia, see my posts on "The Hakkas in Sabah" and
"The Hakkas in Sarawak".

Many of the towns in Malaysia were founded by Hakka Chinese.There are 1.6 million Hakka Chinese in Malaysia out of a Chinese population of 5.43 million. [转贴者译:马来西亚有许许多多的客家村庄,马来西亚有华人543万,其中客家人160万]The population of Malaysia is about 21 million.There are Hakka Chinese living in every town or cities in West Malaysia.The followings are the towns [note: in Malaysia, Chinese use Chinese names for the towns and the Malay and the British use Malay names. Sometimes, I have myself mixed up with Chinese and Malay names] where majority of the residents are Hakka Chinese:

In Johore State
(1) Layang Layang (拿央拿央); (2) Kulai (古來)

In Negri Sembilan State
(1) Peradong (日加務); (2) Kulai Pilah (瓜拉庇拉); (3) Mantin (文丁)
(4) Simpang Pertang (葫蘆頂)﹔(5) Seremban (芙蓉); (6) Pantai (武來岸).

In Selangor State
(!) Serdang Baharu (沙登); (2) Kajang (加影); (3) Ulu Yam (無拉港)
(4) Semenyih (錫米山); (5); Kuala Kubu Baharu (新古毛)

In Perak State
(1) Pusing (布先 東莞客家佬); (2) Siputeh (埔地); (3)Tapah (打巴);
(4) Gopeng (務邊); (5) Ipoh (怡保 in Hakka 壩籮); (6) Taiping (太平)
(7) Sungei Siput (和豐) (8) Chemor (朱毛); (9) Kampar (金寶)
and many others.

In Kelantan State
(1) Pulai (布賴)

In Pahang State
(1) Kuala Lipis (立卑); (2) Raub (勞勿); (3) Lembing (林明)

And many others which are too numerous to list them here.

CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (鄭永元)
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 楼主| 发表于 2003-8-15 09:56:28 | 显示全部楼层

馬來西亞客家話部分地方也有萎縮跡象

這篇帖子,介紹馬來西亞方言分布的,涉及到客家話,轉帖如下:
來源:http://chinese.pku.edu.cn/bbs/thread.php?tid=11269&page=26
http://chinese.pku.edu.cn/bbs/thread.php?tid=11269NO.121603  

RE:闽南话专题 ( 2003-8-15 04:33 )

在山 于 2003-8-14 10:10 PM 写道:
听说东西南北四马的华人各讲各的方言,请问是这样的吗?  


大致上可以这样讲。
你拿张马来西亚地图看看吧!我大概介绍方言的分布,我以马来文地名来作介绍因为马来文地名比较普遍。

由马来西亚半岛西海岸的北马谈起:

Perlis, Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Pulau Pinang(槟城-我的家乡), Perak 北部(靠近Kedah一带)人人都懂漳州话。闽南话非常强势,几乎无人不晓。年轻人都很爱说方言-漳州话。当中有很多的潮州镇如Bukit Mertajam, Parit Buntar,但可惜潮州话不很普遍。

Perak的首府Ipoh讲广东话和客家话(但客家话已式微,被广东话吞噬了)。粤语在Ipoh也是无人不小的语言。Perak南部又是福建话的地盘。但唯有Perak沿海的Sitiawan讲福州话。

Selangor & Kuala Lumpur 大部分地区讲广东话。虽然当中有很多客家镇如Kajang, Serdang, Sungai Pelek,但客家话在这些地区都已经式微。但唯有Klang(巴生-大马最大的港口)讲泉州话,泉州话的普遍性也是无人不晓。Klang这个闽南话地盘被广东话地盘团团包围。hahahaha...

往南走下,Negeri Sembilan也是客家话和广东话的混合区,但客家话也渐渐式微。

直到大马的古城Melaka,以前是个泉州话为主的城市,但泉州话被华语吞噬,变成一个讲普通话的城市了。

来到南部,Johor。Johor北部如Segamat, Muar, Tangkak还是以泉州话为主,但有越来越多的年轻人爱讲华语(普通话)。最南端的Johor Bahru,以前是潮州话的地盘,但很可惜,现在已将变成讲华语的地方了。

现在我谈谈东海岸的Kelantan,Terengganu.这两个地方的华人人口很少,但很多漳州人,讲漳州话(可是年轻人越来越爱讲华语)。

东海岸的Pahang州首府Kuantan,讲粤语。这个州很大,很多地方我还没去调查。

我们来谈谈东马(以前叫婆罗州Borneo)的Sarawak州
:他的首府Kuching的华人讲漳州话(聚集在市中心)和客家话(聚集在外围地区),漳州语音很像槟城,但声调起伏较大。年轻人也相当爱讲方言。
这个州的第二大城镇Sibu,讲福州话,虽然有相当多的闽南后裔,但福州话还是比较流行。这个州的其他地方我就不得而知了。因为我没真正调查过。


东马最北端靠近菲律宾的Sabah州是客家话最流行的地方。客家话在该州的各大城镇如Kota Kinabalu,Tawau...等华人社区中的普遍性也是无人不晓的。唯有Sandakan讲粤语。

[ 本帖由 yanxiuhong9 于 2003-8-15 09:59 最后编辑 ]
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发表于 2006-6-1 17:17:57 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 yanxiuhong 于 2002-9-3 19:52 发表
网络来源:
http://www.asiawind.com/php3/php ... p;i=2055&t=2055
Author: CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (130.95.128.---)
Date:   09-02-02 09:59

The arrival of Hakka Chinese in Malaysia
...

无拉港是Balakong 不是Ulu Yam, Ulu Yam 在新古毛Kula Kubu Bahru
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发表于 2006-6-1 17:23:10 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 yanxiuhong 于 2002-9-3 19:52 发表
网络来源:
http://www.asiawind.com/php3/php ... p;i=2055&t=2055
Author: CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (130.95.128.---)
Date:   09-02-02 09:59

The arrival of Hakka Chinese in Malaysia
...

在森美兰州Pantai 是班底,Broga是武来岸,有一座很有名的石拿督香火鼎盛
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发表于 2006-6-28 01:08:36 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 yanxiuhong 于 2002-9-3 19:52 发表
网络来源:
http://www.asiawind.com/php3/php ... p;i=2055&t=2055
Author: CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (130.95.128.---)
Date:   09-02-02 09:59

The arrival of Hakka Chinese in Malaysia
...



In Perak State
(1) Pusing (布先 東莞客家佬); My hometown

Actually some fact in this article is not really correct. e.g. "Selangor & Kuala Lumpur 大部分地区讲广东话。虽然当中有很多客家镇如Kajang, Serdang, Sungai Pelek,但客家话在这些地区都已经式微"。Hakka is still the main dialect spoken in Kajang and Serdang by the local resident. Due to there is University in thhis 2 areas, there are a lot of student which belongs to other dialect group stay here. So, I don't agree this statement 客家话在这些地区都已经式微.


As for this...
Perak的首府Ipoh讲广东话和客家话(但客家话已式微,被广东话吞噬了)。粤语在Ipoh也是无人不小的语言。Perak南部又是福建话的地盘。但唯有Perak沿海的Sitiawan讲福州话。
This middle part of Perak is dominated by hakka actually especially the Kinda valley. Places like Pusing, Bemban village, Cenderong, Simpang Pulai, siputeh, Chemor...etc. Hakka is not commonly used in Taiping, in fact hokkien is the main dialect spoken there.

Thanks Yansiuhong for the detail post. I hope this can be a supplement to the articles above. :)
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发表于 2007-1-2 10:55:45 | 显示全部楼层
霹雳Perak 州是客家人分布最广的一州. 如插图表明霹雳州大埔人的分布.

http://www.hakkaonline.com/forum ... =page%3D1#pid524034

[ 本帖最后由 namlow 于 2007-1-2 11:01 编辑 ]
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